Information and Communication Technology (ICT)

At present the whole world has become digital. Due to the digital revolution, we have become completely dependent on the Internet.The Internet is a storehouse of information. Information and communication technology is the pivot of the whole world.The whole world revolves around information.The basis of any private organization or government office is correct and authentic information. Information and communication technology has its own broad field. There is no limit to information, and its types are also infinite.

Meaning of Information and Communication Technology

Information is the basis for gaining knowledge and understanding about the environment around us.Therefore, it is necessary for a person to have the knowledge of receiving, storing and using this information when required.Such activities are Information Technology (IT), but in the absence of the art of proper communication, the receipt and use of information is incomplete.

Communication is a two-way process, in which ideas and information are shared among others. During communication, there is an exchange of information between the source and the receiver, which helps in the growth, understanding and use of knowledge.

Information and communication technology is the technology by which it helps to receive, store, use, represent and transfer information accurately and effectively.

Its objective is to enhance the user’s knowledge, communication skills, decision making ability and problem solving ability. In this way both information and communication are necessary in the process of acquiring knowledge.

Information and communication technology also plays an important role in our daily life. New experiments and efforts are being made to transfer information from one place to another. Post and telegraph service, telephone, television, radar, satellite communication systems etc. are the result of these efforts.We can define information and communication technology as the technology used for the communication of information.

Origin and Growth of Information and Communication Technology (ICT)

In ancient times, the information was stored in the mind of the individual and the authority was transferred orally. Thus the invention of paper and ink is very important in the field of information and communication.

Print media is also an important invention of this field.Some of the important technological developments which have helped even in information and communication are as follows-

(1) In the year 1900, the invention of the photostat by Prof. Graphene of France.

(2) The invention of micrography in 1940 by which the recorded material can be copied in a very small form.

(3) Invention of laser technology for print in 1960.

(4) The development of magnetic video cameras, video discs, a computer in the twentieth century.

(5) Invention of telephone, telegram, radio, tape recorder, television communication satellite, fax etc. which played an important role in bringing us into the satellite era. After being equipped with new means of collecting, storing and exchanging information, efforts were made in the direction of scientific control over information and communication in the 19th century.

In 1950, the word ‘informatics’ (Information Science) was propounded in U.S.A. Its main objective was to make the communication of scientific information more effective and to program the users for new and developed methods of obtaining scientific information.

After 1960, the use of information and communication technology in all areas; For example, it started happening in science, industries, medicine, education, banks, government offices, management etc.

At present, it is being used extensively in teaching learning activities, distance and free education, virtual classes etc.

Modern Information and Communication Technology (Tools)

Modern information and communication technology is the teaching of hardware, software, media and transmission media etc. Chief among these are the following–

(1) Multimedia Computers (Multimedia Personal Computer)
(2) Laptop with video cord and web camera.
(3) CD Rom a DVD
(4) Digital Video Cameras (Digital Video Camera)
(5) LCD Projector.
(6) Computer Database.
(7) Power Point Simulation
(৪) Word processors, spreadsheets, etc.
(9) E-mail, Internet, World Wide Web (www)
(10) Hypermedia and Hypertext sources.
(11) Video text, tele-text, interactive video text.
(12) Visual and Audio Conferencing (Audio and Video Conferencing)
(13) Interactive Remote Instruction (Interactive Remote Instruction)
(14) Virtual Class (Virtual Classroom)
(15) Digital Library

Uses & Benefits of Information and Communication Technology (ICT)

Modern ICT has changed our daily lives in various areas; For example, education, business, banking, medicine have been affected. It has affected our way of thinking, way of communicating etc.

The major advantages of information and communication technology in education are following –

Helpful in building a knowledge based Society

ICT has helped in building a knowledge based society through education through latest tools and methods. By imparting teaching in the modern era, the youth cannot be prepared for changes with the help of traditional technology. Proper use of information and communication technology is proving helpful in this direction.

Personal Development of Students

Through ICT, students can get training in receiving and using information for their own development.

Through information and communication technology, students can acquire knowledge, understanding, skill, interest, aptitude, etc.

Through this, students can get information simultaneously with complete accuracy and fast speed.

Through information and communication technology, students can get self-instruction according to their ability, need and speed.

Instruction through information and communication technology can be provided to the students on the basis of individual differences.

Through this, students can quench their curiosity as well as get help in making inventions etc.

By acquiring appropriate decision making ability and problem solving ability, necessary changes can be brought about in the behavior of the students.

Helpful in Teaching

ICT also helps the teachers in teaching-learning process. With students receiving self-instruction, teachers can use that time to guide and mentor them, tutorial group teaching, etc.

Information and communication technology helps teachers and students in achieving educational objectives.

Sources of information in the form of books, magazines, study materials, audio-visual materials, instruments etc. help teachers in obtaining teaching-learning materials and techniques.

Helpful in Counselling

It also provides information and communication technical assistance in providing consultancy work. Through the recorded electronic material, they can learn about the educational level, interests, aptitudes and other personality characteristics of the students and meet the guidance and counseling needs of the students.

It helps the counselors to find the sources of information required to provide educational, vocational and personal counseling.

Helpful in Student Centered Teaching

ICT has played an important role in changing the teaching-learning process from teacher-centred to student-centred. By acquiring knowledge and skills, students become more self-directed and self-confident.

With its help, students can get a large number of information and can also do difficult tasks through collaborative learning through effective communication.

Change in the form of Teaching Learning Process

Due to its ability to convert teaching into learning, ICT has provided a more active learning environment for both the teacher and the learner.

Now the role of teacher is not only to impart knowledge but also to be a facilitator in student learning and active learner in learning along with the student. At present, the process of achieving educational objectives through information and communication technology has also become interesting.

Helpful in Teachers Training

ICT has also played an important role in teacher training programme. It is very useful in the development of effective teachers according to the needs of modern society.

It helps the teacher to accept the challenges for fulfilling the multi-dimensional responsibilities of the teacher. It can be used in the development of teaching skills in the micro-teaching process.

Helpful in Educational Administration

ICT plays an important role in helping educational administrators perform their professional responsibilities.

Such information for educational administrators is helpful in making decisions regarding curriculum construction, educational objectives at different levels, evaluation method, resources to be given to schools, etc.

The facility of communication has greatly benefited in the work of educational administration. Through this they can get information about development in the field of education, educational administration and planning.

Also they can get information and statistics related to the activities of the institution, activities of teachers, achievements of students etc.

Helpful in Educational Researches

Through ICT, pure and different types of information required for research work are obtained.

Research work can be done easily through the sources of communication. ICT has played an important role in academic research work. It is thus clear that ICT has an important role in all areas of education.

It is very helpful directly or indirectly in the attainment of educational objectives.

Limitations of Information and Communication Technology

Following are the major limitations of information and communication technology-

(1) There is a fear among teachers that the use of information and communication technology in the teaching-learning process may jeopardize their ownership. They feel that their role will be negligible with the use of information and communication technology in the instructional process.

(2) Efforts are not made by teacher training institutions to develop knowledge, skills, attitudes, interests etc. related to the use of ICT.

(3) The administrative officers of the school and the state are reluctant in the use of information and communication technology in the schools and gathering resources and do not provide any help.

(4) Tasks want to remain passive listeners in the teaching-learning process of students, they are afraid of the difficulties and difficulties in self-learning due to lack of training.

(5) Information and communication technology is not available in most of the schools. The school is not in a position to bear its purchase, maintenance and other expenses.

(6) The school curriculum, examination system, evaluation method etc. are not conducive to the use of information and communication technology.

(7) There is ignorance and disinterest among teachers, principals, other concerned persons about the use and benefits of information and communication technology.

Read :

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मनोविज्ञान (Psychology) क्या है? इसके प्रमुख सम्प्रदाय
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पाश्चात्य दर्शन की विचारधाराएँ (Schools of Western Philosophy)
सूक्ष्म शिक्षण का अर्थ, विशेषताएँ, गुण एवं दोष
शिक्षा की प्रकृति (Nature of Education)
शिक्षा, शिक्षण एवं सीखना (Education, Teaching and Learning)
पाठ्यक्रम की आवश्यकता (Need of Curriculum)
पाठ्यक्रम निर्माण के सिद्धान्त (Principles of Curriculum Construction)
शिक्षा का आधार (Foundation of Education)
शैक्षिक अनुसंधान का स्वरूप एवं विषय क्षेत्र
भविष्य शिक्षा (Futuristic Education)
उत्तम शिक्षण की विशेषताएँ (Characteristics of Good Teaching)
शिक्षा के प्रकार (Types of Education)

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